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The primary site of flavonone action is the cytoplasmic membrane.This may allude to the potential of these compounds to disrupt the formation of biofilms and antibiotic resistance.Baicalin is one of the few flavonones whose effects upon osteomyelitisinduced bone resorption has been investigated.This altered inflammatory response profile bears semblance to the already elucidated mechanisms of naringin signaling in reducing osteolysis in various models of bone loss.Moreover, the demonstrated ability of naringin to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and bone resident cell apoptosis and promote osteogenic differentiation in other models of osteolytic and inflammatory bone loss is suggestive of its potential to mitigate the osteolytic effects of entrenched bony infection.Further in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the antiinflammatory effects of naringin therapy, and with a variety of drug delivery systems, in the setting of musculoskeletal infection are needed.The demonstrated efficacy of flavonones in preventing osteoclastic bone resorption and promoting sell CORM3 osteoblastic differentiation and activity in other osteolytic diseases may carry over to the progressive destruction of bone characteristic of osteomyelitis.Furthermore, the natural occurrence, widespread availability, and low cost of isoflavonoids make them attractive in the treatment of osteomyelitis and in addressing the unequal burden of chronic osteomyelitis in low and middleincome countries.Numerous biomaterialbased platforms have been investigated with the goal of optimizing the therapeutic effects of naringin by reducing its degradation and sustaining its spatiotemporal release within the body.This naringin nanoscaffold also suppressed osteoclastogenesis in a critical size defect of mouse calvarial bone, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in TRAP staining compared to blank PCL nanoscaffold controls.Further research is needed to characterize the in vivo performance of these novel naringinloaded delivery systems, their effects upon the bioactivity of naringin in various bodily tissues, and their safety and utility in the treatment of diverse musculoskeletal conditions.Measured serum biomarkers included alanine aminotransferase, creatinine phosphokinase, and potassium, as well as total white blood cell and eosinophil counts as markers of immune system activation.At these doses, naringin metabolites freely circulate and are effectively cleared from the body within hof ingestion.The authors concluded that oral doses of mg of naringinen are safe and tolerable in healthy adults, with serum concentrations proportional to the oral doses received.One randomized controlled trial of excessive grapefruit consumption reported constipation and diarrhea as adverse effects, though it is not clear whether this effect can be solely or primarily attributed to naringin.It may also be extracted from the chitinous exoskeletons of crustaceans and cell membranes of mushrooms.Glucosamine is a precursor of glycoprotein and glycosaminoglycan synthesis and is vital for the production of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and keratan sulfate, all components of the extracellular matrices of articular cartilage and synovial fluid.The utility of glucosamine supplementation in the forms of glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride has been explored in multiple randomized clinical trials of osteoarthritis patients.However, the authors classified these data as inconsistent and unclear with a likely modest effect size, if any.Chondroitin sulfate increases synovial cell production of hyaluronan, which maintains the viscosity of synovial fluid.In a clinical trial of patients given mg of chondroitin sulfate or placebo for months, chondroitin sulfate demonstrated superiority to placebo with respect to global hand pain, hand function, and morning stiffness reduction.

asked Apr 8 in Asiaworld by anonymous

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